In modern economy the level of education has a serious impact on the level of unemployment. People with higher education have much better prospects on the labour market, this situation being characteristic of all European countries. Simultaneously, the development of education is one of the factors of economic growth. The analysis of the situation shows that the level of education in new EU member states approximately corresponds to that in EU-15 countries. However this potential is used less effectively. As a result, many companies of Central European countries appear to be unable to turn the potential of their employees into real income.